International journal of Education Teacher <p>International Journal of Education</p> <p>Faculty of Education - Bitola</p> <p>"St. Kliment Ohridski" University - Bitola, North Macedonia</p> <p>The international Journal of Education TEACHER is published twice a year, in <strong>may</strong> and <strong>november.</strong></p> <p>Full papers are accepted for review all the time.</p> <p>Papers are submited by registering in our system or by sending them to <strong></strong></p> en-US (Ljupcho Kevereski) (Josif) Mon, 13 Nov 2023 11:53:07 +0100 OJS 60 BRITISH ENGLISH VERSUS AMERICAN ENGLISH PREFERENCE BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF EFL <p>For decades English has been considered a global language used as not only a native language, but as an official language, a second language in many countries and taught as a foreign language worldwide. Herein, English includes numerous varieties, regional and local dialects, professional speech, slangs, jargons etc. The variety of English is an important feature for learners of EFL, especially for future teachers of English. The constant exposure to different types of English through television, movies, online content etc. might hinder the fluency of EFL learners. Therefore, EFL teachers need to help their students and prevent any ambiguities due to the differences between American and British English. In this research, we have analysed the preference of students between British English and American English vocabulary. The analysis includes 60 first year students of English language and literature from the University “Goce Delcev” in North Macedonia and the South-West University in the Republic of Bulgaria. The results provide an insight on both the knowledge and linguistic preference of students between the two standardized English varieties and enable teachers, university professors and English coursebooks authors to determine their approach in class and help students master fluency.</p> Ana Koceva, Dafina Kostadinova , Tanya Tabutova Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 INVESTIGATING L2-L1 TRANSFER AMONG BILINGUAL STUDENTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA <p>Language constitutes an indispensable facet of human existence It facilitates communication and perspective-sharing while allowing us to mould it to fit our unique needs. Foreign language proficiency adds an additional layer of such skills. Thus, people have been motivated to learn another language since time immemorial. As cultures and languages have intertwined and exposure to multimedia in different languages has grown, the number of bilinguals has grown, and with that, the opportunities for language transfer, as well.</p> <p>Language learners in North Macedonia, especially the ones who learn English have been becoming increasingly more proficient. This progress has been so substantial that educators have observed cases of influence from the second language (L2) to the first language (L1). Educators have noted various instances where this influence occurs such as: capitalizing certain words that aren’t meant to be capitalized in Macedonian, using English abbreviations incorrectly, mixing collocations, and atypical code-switching.</p> <p> Using observation during non–English classes and breaks, this small-scale study aimed to qualitatively investigate and interpret the L2-L1 transfer patterns in primary school students, and discuss them in a wider context using additional electronic resources. The results highlighted the numerous instances of such interlanguage influence i.e. mistakes that students make when using their mother tongue due to English.</p> Marija Stojanoska, Elena Shalevska, Marija Talevska Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 AI LANGUAGE MODELS, STANDARDIZED TESTS, AND ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: A CHAT (GPT) <p>Language models’ popularity is on the rise, and with that, concerns about academic integrity in the times of such advanced Artificial intelligence (AI) tools are on the rise, too. Considering such concerns, this small study, which employs both qualitative and quantitative methods, thoroughly examines the role of language models, particularly ChatGPT, in the context of academic integrity. By assessing the accuracy of test answers generated by said language model, on questions from the state-issued high-school graduation English exam in N. Macedonia, and analyzing parts of essays generated using various prompts, the study aims to explore the potential implications of such AI tools on academic integrity in this new tech era.<br>The study shows that ChatGPT's accuracy in providing test answers is satisfactory, with a minimal number of mistakes and over 80% accuracy on average, on both tests! As for the text/parts of essays generated by the model, the study has shown that the quality of the generated text differed based on the prompts that the user provided and their proficiency in articulating their specific demands. The study also showed that current AI detection remains unreliable at best.<br>These findings contribute to the ongoing discourse on AI's influence on education and academic integrity, especially in regard to ChatGPT’s capabilities to generate content that can pass standardized tests and excel in open-ended writing tasks.</p> Elena Shalevska Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Exploring EFL Teachers' Perceptions: Integrating Children's Literature in the Language Classroom <p>Across epochs, both philosophers and educators have harnessed literature's power in language teaching, recognizing its unique benefits for language learners. Unfortunately, the Macedonian foreign language teaching system underutilizes literature in EFL instruction despite the many benefits offered by such an approach. Thus, Macedonian students are only given mere fragments of literature in their EFL textbooks – pieces of writing stripped of literary authenticity and valuable language acquisition potential. Recognizing the proven benefits of implementing literature, and the increasing interest in using it in EFL/ESL classes in recent decades, this study aims to explore teachers' perceptions of literature as a vital tool for improving students’ language skills. This small-scale, mixed-approach qualitative and quantitative study, based on a survey for EFL teachers, found that the participants believed that there are numerous potential benefits of introducing literature into their classes. Although the teachers voiced certain apprehension about their students' reading habits and highlighted some challenges with tailoring the reading activities to learners with varying levels of proficiency, they remained convinced that literature in the EFL classes can foster improved speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills.</p> Dushko Talevski, Elena Shalevska Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 JUXTAPOSITION OF THE SOUND SYSTEMS OF THE ENGLISH AND MACEDONIAN AND THE POSSIBILITIES FOR INTERFERENCE <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A large number of studies confirm the influence that the native language has on the learning and use of English as a foreign language, especially regarding the correct pronunciation of sounds. Bearing in mind that the correct pronunciation of a foreign language sounds is one of the factors for successful oral and written communication among its foreign speakers and between them and the native speakers, in this paper, the sound systems of the Standard English (SEL) as a foreign language (EFL) and Standard Macedonian (SML) as a native language (MNL) are juxtaposed in order to detect the possibilities for interference, that is, the wrong perception and pronunciation of the sounds in the SEL, which consequently affects both the oral and written communication. The sample consists of the sound systems of both languages, which are juxtaposed by using contrastive analysis. The findings build on the results of worldwide research on this issue and show that the differences between the sound systems of these two languages do cause sound interference occurrences, i.e., the wrong perception and pronunciation of sounds in the EL, and consequently failed communication.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Stela Bosilkovska, Violeta Janusheva Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The Imperative for Occupational Therapy in Children with Learning Disabilities <p>Children with learning disabilities face unique challenges that can significantly impact their academic performance, social development, and overall well-being. This abstract explores the compelling need for occupational therapy (OT) as an essential intervention for children with learning disabilities. Drawing upon a growing body of research, this paper highlights the multifaceted nature of learning disabilities and the ways in which occupational therapy can effectively address these challenges. Learning disabilities encompass a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders that manifest as difficulties in acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disabilities, often characterized by dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia, not only hinder academic achievement but also lead to emotional and psychological distress in affected children.</p> <p>Occupational therapy, with its holistic approach plays a pivotal role in addressing the needs of children with learning disabilities. Occupational therapists are skilled in assessing a child's sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional functions, thus enabling them to tailor interventions that cater to individual needs. This includes strategies to enhance fine and gross motor skills, sensory integration techniques, and cognitive exercises aimed at improving executive functions such as attention, planning, and organization. Furthermore, OT interventions extend beyond the classroom, encompassing activities of daily living (ADLs) and social participation. Children with learning disabilities often struggle with self-care tasks and establishing peer relationships. Occupational therapists can equip these children with essential life skills, boost self-esteem, and enhance social integration, thus fostering overall independence and resilience.</p> <p>Research has consistently demonstrated the positive impact of occupational therapy on children with learning disabilities, with improvements noted in academic performance, self-regulation, and emotional well-being. Early intervention is key, as it can mitigate the long-term consequences of learning disabilities and empower children to reach their full potential. In conclusion, this abstract underscore the critical need for occupational therapy in children with learning disabilities. By addressing the complex and multifaceted nature of these disabilities, occupational therapists offer a holistic approach that fosters academic success, independence in daily life, and improved emotional well-being. As educators, parents, and healthcare professionals recognize the pivotal role of occupational therapy, greater support and resources should be allocated to ensure that all children with learning disabilities receive the comprehensive care they deserve.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Denis Arsovski, Domnika Rajchanovska, Izabela Filov, Daniela Petkovska, Tatjana Nestorovska, Angelka Jankulovska, Tanja Jovanovska, Viktorija Prodanovska - Stojchevska Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TEACHER IN ENCOURAGING CREATIVITY AMONG THE GIFTED STUDENTS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION <p>The development of students' creativity is one of the main goals of educational activities. However, it is not always properly developed in the school environment, especially when it comes to the education of gifted students. Creativity can be challenging for most teachers due to lack of understanding and inadvertently inhibit it with teaching methods that are not aimed at encouraging student potential. Therefore, the teacher and his behavior play an important role in the development of creativity. The way teachers, especially in primary education, perceive creativity provides a basis for their real activities that are oriented towards the development of students' creativity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight teachers and their behaviors for developing creativity in the school environment from primary education.</p> Vesna Stojanovska Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 PANNONIC LEGENDS <p>The question of the attribution of the colloquially named Pannonian legends, i.e., the hagiography of St. Cyril and the hagiography of St. Methodius, is very important from two aspects. It is essential for the attribution of Saint Clement's work, and on the other hand, these two hagiographies represent written documents that provide the closest data on the Moravian mission, i.e., on the Cyril Methodius issue, one of the most significant points on which Slavic philology rests. The fact that the Moravian mission is a testimony to the formation of the new strong European civilization – the Slavic one – is undoubtedly important.</p> Anita Angelevska Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 COMPARISON OF SPEAKERS LIZ TRUSS AND BORIS JOHNSON <p>Public political discourse is one of the most common ways for a politician to communicate with their voters. The aim of this study is to conduct an analysis and comparison of the speakers Liz Truss and Boris Johnson in their public appearances in front of the audience, where specific characteristics of political rhetoric will be explained in the following text. The speeches of Elizabeth (Liz) Truss differ in terms of length, style, and language she uses. Some of her speeches are strictly based on facts and descriptions of actions by historical figures, where the use of figurative language is very rare. However, there are speeches where the concept of metaphor is used in a prosperous and productive way. Entire domains such as country, economy, and the world are often combined with the original domain. This expresses the process of "building" or "creating" a better place to live or describing the desired way the country, economy, or the world should look, or the way to improve the current state. In contrast, Boris Johnson's speeches are more explicit, supplemented with emotional feelings, and a desire to evoke empathy among the entire audience.</p> Sofia Trampevska, Biljana Gramatkovski Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 USING STEM EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS <p>STEM education is an educational approach that contains multiple scientific disciplines and has become a popular method in recent years. Since more efforts are made to integrate STEM more effectively into the educational system, educators face major challenges in finding teaching methods and strategies. STEM education offers many advantages to students, teaching them critical skills they can use to succeed in life. STEM assignments can be easily adjusted to suit different age ranges, abilities, group sizes and interests. Their adaptability is part of what makes them so great to use in teaching and learning environments. The main purpose of implementing STEM education in standard curriculum is for students to learn to solve problems through scientific methods and mathematics to become highly skilled workforce in the future. Although history has played and continues to play a role in STEM education, there are many variations and opinions about what STEM education is and how it should be taught. This paper will attempt to break through the complexities of STEM in the fields of education and will try to give a clear definition of STEM, as well as the aspects in which STEM is implemented.</p> Josif Petrovski Copyright (c) 2023 International journal of Education Teacher Mon, 13 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100